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IT Training Glossary of Terms

Below are a list of IT terms.  Learn the definitions of Java Programming, Python Programming, DevOps and more.  Feel free to email to suggest any additional IT training terms.

  • Artificial Intelligence: As the name itself implies, AI is all about the intelligence being exhibited by a machine leading to an optimal or suboptimal solution.
  • C#:  The language of Microsoft’s .NET Framework—the most popular framework on the web—C# combines productivity and versatility by blending the best aspects of the C and C++ languages. It’s excellent for developing Windows applications, and can be used to build iOS, Android mobile apps with the help of a cross-platform technology like Xamarin.
  • C++:  Great for complex applications also built on the .NET Framework, the C++ programming language is a difficult but high-powered language that works well for data-heavy sites. Speed is central to C++, and it runs well alongside other languages like Java and Python.
  • Chef:  Chef is a configuration management tool for dealing with machine setup on physical servers, virtual machines and in the cloud. Many companies use Chef software to control and manage their infrastructure including Facebook, Etsy, Cheezburger, and Indiegogo.
  • Docker:  Docker is a tool which is used at deployment stage for containerization of an application so that the application can work efficiently in different environment. It is a very important tool which is used in DevOps. Basically DevOps has certain continuous stages.
  • Erlang: A general-purpose programming language, Erlang is also a concurrent language, which means several processes can run simultaneously on the language-level without external library support. It’s used in the LYME and LYCE stacks, numerous CMS and databases, GitHub, Facebook chat, and Goldman Sachs, supporting its high-frequency trading requirements.
  • IDE: (Integrated Development Environment) helps a programmer a lot by providing all comprehensive facilities required for the development. It also improves the productivity of a developer with its useful tools, autocompletes capabilities and hundreds of shortcuts.
  • Java: A subset of the C language, Java comes with a huge ecosystem of add-on software components. At its core, Java is a variation of C++ with an easier learning curve, plus, it’s platform independent thanks to the Java Virtual Machine. “Compile once, run anywhere” is its motto—and it’s excellent for enterprise-level applications, high-traffic sites, and Android apps. Java sites: Twitter, Verizon, AT&T, Salesforce
  • The Java Virtual Machine (JVM): Java is platform-independent, thanks to the JVM, an abstract computing machine that converts Java from source code into machine code.
  • The Java Platform: A robust, open-source development environment includes libraries, frameworks, APIs, the Java Runtime Environment, Java plug-ins, and Java’s Virtual Machine (JVM).
  • JavaScript: Javascript is a high-level, interpreted programming language. It is a language which is also characterized as dynamic, weakly typed, prototype-based and multi-paradigm.  Javascript displays the data in the browser and processes user requests/interactions like clicks.
  • Jenkins: An open-source continuous integration software tool written in the Java programming language for testing and reporting on isolated changes in a larger code base in real time. The software enables developers to find and solve defects in a code base rapidly and to automate testing of their builds.
  • Model-view-controller (MVC):  Model–view–controller is an architectural pattern commonly used for developing user interfaces that divides an application into three interconnected parts. This is done to separate internal representations of information from the ways information is presented to and accepted from the user. The MVC design pattern decouples these major components allowing for efficient code reuse and parallel development.  Traditionally used for desktop graphical user interfaces (GUIs), this architecture has become popular for designing web applications and even mobile, desktop and other clients. Popular programming languages like JavaC#, Ruby, PHP have MVC frameworks that are used in web application development straight out of the box.
    • Python Programming:  With fewer lines of code, the Python programming language is fast, making it ideal for getting things to market quickly. The emphasis is on readability and simplicity, which makes it great for beginners. It’s the oldest of the scripting languages, is powerful, and works well in object-oriented designs. Python-powered sites: YouTube, Google, The Washington Post
  • XMLHttpRequest objects: the keystone of AJAX, they actually retrieve the data with the server behind the scenes. All modern browsers support XMLHttpRequests.
  • JUnit: This lightweight framework written in Java helps developers easily write repeatable tests, used to test site code for bugs and inefficiencies.
  • Spring framework: A framework that builds fast, simple JVM-based enterprise systems and applications that are as portable as the JVM is. It’s simple and streamlined but has plenty of great commonly used features.
  • Hadoop: A big-data analysis platform used by Facebook advertising.  Hadoop is one of the most popular “file system computing” services that’s used to divvy up data storage and processing tasks on clusters of commodity hardware—affordable hardware that’s easy to obtain and can be repurposed to become a part of a distributed Hadoop set-up.
  • Android mobile OS and applications: Google uses a virtual machine called Dalvik that converts JVM bytecode into mobile-optimized code that powers all applications on Android mobile devices. This definitely brought Java back into the spotlight for the development community.
  • Ruby:  If you’re expecting complicated logic on the database side of your site, the Ruby programming language is an excellent option. Unlike Python, Ruby is equal parts simplicity and complexity, pairing simple code with more flexibility and extra tools. Ruby bundles the back end with database functionality that PHP and SQL can offer as a pair—it’s great for startups, easy maintenance, and high-traffic demands. It requires developers to use the Ruby on Rails framework, which has vast libraries of code to streamline back-end development. Ruby-powered sites: Hulu, Twitter (originally), Living Social, Basecamp
  • Ruby on Rails: Ruby is a programming language that was created in 1995 by Yukihiro Matsumoto, a computer scientist from Japan. The language is of general-purpose and object-oriented.  It has been developing and gaining popularity steadily until 2005 when Rails was introduced. Rails is a web application framework written in Ruby. The focus on web applications caused a boom in Ruby’s popularity, and the community started to grow extremely rapidly, as well as the information available for the language and the framework.
  • Swift:  A programming language for iOS mobile apps that’s given iOS developers an alternative to Objective-C, an object-oriented superset of the C programming language that until 2014 has been the core of iOS development. Swift is designed to be compatible with all of the existing iOS development tools—xCode, Objective-C, and the Cocoa framework
  • Apache’s Lucene project/Solr server:  Apache’s Solr server was built with Apache’s Lucene search software, which was built with Java.
  • VMware: VMware software provides a completely virtualized set of hardware to the guest operating system.  VMware software virtualizes the hardware for a video adapter, a network adapter, and hard disk adapters. The host provides pass-through drivers for guest USB, serial, and parallel devices. In this way, VMware virtual machines become highly portable between computers, because every host looks nearly identical to the guest.
  • Ansible:  Ansible is an open source software that automates software provisioning, configuration management, and application deployment. Ansible connects via SSH, remote PowerShell or via other remote APIs.
  • Puppet: Puppet is an open-source software configuration management tool. It runs on many Unix-like systems as well as on Microsoft Windows, and includes its own declarative language to describe system configuration.
  • Big Data John Foreman, the chief data scientist for MailChimp who has also consulted for Coca-Cola and the Department of Defense, offers a succinct definition in his book Data Smart: Using Data Science to Transform Information into Insight. Big data is the “use of statistics and mathematics to transform data into insights, decisions, and products.”
  • PHP:  The most popular server-side language on the web, PHP is designed to pull and edit information in the database. It’s most commonly bundled with databases written in the SQL language. PHP was designed strictly for the web and remains one of the most widely used languages around. It’s easy to install and deploy, is staying competitive with lots of modern frameworks, and is the foundation for a number of content-management systems. PHP-powered sites: WordPress, Wikipedia, Facebook.
  • SQL:   (Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS). It is particularly useful in handling structured data where there are relations between different entities/variables of the data. SQL offers two main advantages over older read/write APIs like ISAM or VSAM: first, it introduced the concept of accessing many records with one single command; and second, it eliminates the need to specify how to reach a record, e.g. with or without an index.  Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of many types of statements, which may be informally classed as sublanguages, commonly: a data query language (DQL), a data definition language (DDL), a data control language (DCL), and a data manipulation language (DML). The scope of SQL includes data query, data manipulation (insert, update and delete), data definition (schema creation and modification), and data access control. Although SQL is often described as, and to a great extent is, a declarative language (4GL), it also includes procedural elements.  SQL was one of the first commercial languages for Edgar F. Codd’s relational model. The model was described in his influential 1970 paper, “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks”. Despite not entirely adhering to the relational model as described by Codd, it became the most widely used database language.   SQL became a standard of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1986, and of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1987. Since then, the standard has been revised to include a larger set of features. Despite the existence of such standards, most SQL code is not completely portable among different database systems without adjustments.
  • Bootstrap:  Bootstrap is a front-end framework that builds responsive, mobile-first websites. With a mobile-first approach at its core, its grid system forces designers to create sites for small screens, then scale designs up from there.
  • Vagrant:  Vagrant is an open-source software product for building and maintaining portable virtual software development environments, e.g. for VirtualBox, Hyper-V, Docker containers, VMware, and AWS which try to simplify software configuration management of virtualizations in order to increase development productivity. Vagrant is written in the Ruby language, but its ecosystem supports development in a few languages.  Vagrant is another tool to help your organization transition to a DevOps culture. Vagrant also helps improve your entire workflow of using Puppet, improving development and process for both developers and operations.
  • Web Application Frameworks:  Each programming language has at least one universal, reusable framework. Libraries within each framework offer reusable bundles of that language—code for a drop-down menu, for example. But they’re more than just the code—frameworks are fully layered workflow environments.
  • XML or JSON: JSON is a syntax designed to store and move data that’s sent between server and browser. It’s similar to a markup language in its syntax and how it’s used, but it’s not a markup language at its core. If you think of how XML functions in the scheme of a site—XML describes elements of data, while HTML displays that data—JSON does the same thing, just in a more streamlined way, both for the developer and the browser.

Many glossary terms supplied by Wikipedia, Information Age and 

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