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Programming in the C Language

Programming in C++2011 / C++2014 / C++2017 – New Features

Programming in C++ 2011:  Part 1 (Introduction)

Programming in C++ 2011:  Part 2 (Advanced Topics)

Programming in Python –  Essential Features and Techniques

Programming in Python – Intermediate and Advanced Techniques

Programming in Perl – Basic / Intermediate

Programming in Perl – Advanced Topics

From Wikipedia

The C and C++ programming languages are closely related but also different as well in many regards. C++ began as a fork of an early, pre-standardized C, and was designed to be mostly source-and-link compatible with C compilers of the time.[1] Due to this, development tools for the two languages (such as IDEs and compilers) are often integrated into a single product, with the programmer able to specify C or C++ as their source language.

However, C is not a subset of C++,[2] and most non-trivial C programs will not compile as C++ code without modification. Likewise, C++ introduces many features that are not available in C and in practice almost all code written in C++ is not conforming C code. This article, however, focuses on differences that cause conforming C code to be ill-formed C++ code, or to be conforming/well-formed in both languages, but to behave differently in C and C++.

Bjarne Stroustrup, the creator of C++, has suggested[3] that the incompatibilities between C and C++ should be reduced as much as possible in order to maximize inter-operability between the two languages. Others have argued that since C and C++ are two different languages, compatibility between them is useful but not vital; according to this camp, efforts to reduce incompatibility should not hinder attempts to improve each language in isolation. The official rationale for the 1999 C standard (C99) “endorse[d] the principle of maintaining the largest common subset” between C and C++ “while maintaining a distinction between them and allowing them to evolve separately”, and stated that the authors were “content to let C++ be the big and ambitious language.”[4]

Several additions of C99 are not supported in the current C++ standard or conflicted with C++ features, such as variable-length arrays, native complex number types, compound literals, and designated initializers. The initializer list syntax of C++11 generalizes the functionality of C99 compound literals, although with some semantic differences. Designated initializers are planned for C++20. The restrict type qualifierdefined in C99 was not included in the C++03 standard, but most mainstream compilers such as the GNU Compiler Collection,[5] Microsoft Visual C++, and Intel C++ Compiler provide similar functionality as an extension. The long long datatype along with variadic macros were included in the C++11 standard. On the other hand, C99 reduced some other incompatibilities compared with C89 by incorporating C++ features such as // comments and mixed declarations and code.[6]

Python is a widely used high-level programming language for general-purpose programming, created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991. An interpreted language, Python has a design philosophy that emphasizes code readability (notably using whitespace indentation to delimit code blocks rather than curly brackets or keywords), and a syntax that allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than might be used in languages such as C++ or Java.[25][26] It provides constructs that enable clear programming on both small and large scales.[27]

Python features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-orientedimperativefunctional and procedural, and has a large and comprehensive standard library.[28]

Python interpreters are available for many operating systemsCPython, the reference implementation of Python, is open source software[29] and has a community-based development model, as do nearly all of its variant implementations. CPython is managed by the non-profit Python Software Foundation.

Perl is a family of high-levelgeneral-purposeinterpreteddynamic programming languages. The languages in this family include Perl 5 and Perl 6.[8]

Though Perl is not officially an acronym,[9] there are various backronyms in use, including “Practical Extraction and Reporting Language”.[10] Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unixscripting language to make report processing easier.[11] Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions. Perl 6, which began as a redesign of Perl 5 in 2000, eventually evolved into a separate language. Both languages continue to be developed independently by different development teams and liberally borrow ideas from one another.

The Perl languages borrow features from other programming languages including Cshell script (sh), AWK, and sed.[12] They provide powerful text processing facilities without the arbitrary data-length limits of many contemporary Unix commandline tools,[13] facilitating easy manipulation of text files. Perl 5 gained widespread popularity in the late 1990s as a CGI scripting language, in part due to its then unsurpassed regular expressionand string parsing abilities.[14][15][16][17]

In addition to CGI, Perl 5 is used for system administrationnetwork programming, finance, bioinformatics, and other applications, such as for GUIs. It has been nicknamed “the Swiss Army chainsaw of scripting languages” because of its flexibility and power,[18] and also its ugliness.[19] In 1998, it was also referred to as the “duct tape that holds the Internet together”, in reference to both its ubiquitous use as a glue language and its perceived inelegance.[20]

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